Anonymous Namespace Class Definition


Anonymous Namespace Class Definition



I was looking over some (C++) code and found something like this:

//Foo.cpp namespace {     void SomeHelperFunctionA() {}     void SomeHelperFunctionB() {}     void SomeHelperFunctionC() {}      //etc...          class SomeClass //<---     {         //Impl     }; } 

SomeHelperFunction[A-Z] are functions that are only needed in that translation unit, so I understand why they're in an anonymous namespace. Similarly, SomeClass is also only required in that translation unit, but I was under the impression that you could have classes with identical names in different translation units without any sort of naming collisions provided that you didn't have a global class declaration (e.g., in a commonly included header file).

I should also mention that this particular translation unit does not include any headers that might declare a class with an identical name (SomeClass).

So, given this information, could someone please shed some light on why the original programmer might have done this? Perhaps just as a precaution for the future?

I'll be honest, I've never seen classes used in anonymous namespaces before.

Thanks!




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1:



'Helper' functions in C++
An anonymous namespace is like the static keyword when it is applied at the global level.


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An anonymous namespace makes it so you can't call anything inside the namespace from another file.


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Anonymous namespaces allow you to limit the scope of what's within to the current file only.


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The programmer would have done this to avoid naming conflicts.

No global names will conflict in this way at linking time.. Example:. File: test.cpp.
namespace  {   void A()   {   }   void B()   {   }   void C()   {   } }  void CallABC() {    A();   B();   C(); } 
File: main.cpp.
void CallABC();//You can use ABC from this file but not A, B and C  void A() { //Do something different }  int main(int argc, char** argv) {   CallABC();   A();//<--- calls the local file's A() not the other file. 

return 0; }
The above will compile fine.

But if you tried to write an CallABC() function in your main you would have a linking error.. In this way you can't call A(), B() and C() functions individually, but you can call CallABC() that will call all of them one after the other.

. You can forward declare CallABC() inside your main.cpp and call it.

But you can't forward declare test.cpp's A(), B() nor C() inside your main.cpp as you will have a linking error.

. As for why there is a class inside the namespace.

It is to make sure no external files use this class.

Something inside the .cpp probably uses that class.

.


2:


If someone links this code and has the definition of an identical named class included and this file is linked before the other implementation you would have a name conflict..


3:


In the C++ ISO standard (Section 2.3), you will find a rule called The One Definition Rule.. Due to the complex relationship in C++ between compilation and linking, this is not a very simple rule.

Most of the details are here.. But it applies to the functions that are members of a class, because they are (at the linking level) simply functions with long names.. It applies in a slightly different way to templates, because the linker will happily discard extra definitions of template classes or functions that appear in separate translation units (source files).

This means that if you provide two different definitions of the same template, your program has undefined behaviour (best case scenario: one of the definitions will be silently chosen at random)..


4:


I was under the impression that you could have classes with identical names in different translation units without any sort of naming collisions provided that you didn't have a global class declaration .
Well, that's not the case.

Remember that those "common" global class definitions are in header files.

Those are literally included, copying that common global class definition to all translation units.

If you use another way of including exactly the same class definitions in multiple translation units (eg.

macro expansion), it's fine too.

But if you have different definitions for the same class name, you risk undefined behavior.

Link failures if you're lucky..



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